Role of chemokines in ectopic lymphoid structures formation in autoimmunity and cancer.
333 - 341
J Leukoc Biol
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Ectopic (or tertiary) lymphoid structures (ELS) are organized aggregates of lymphocytes resembling secondary lymphoid organs and developing in chronically inflamed nonlymphoid tissues during persistent infections, graft rejection, autoimmune conditions, and cancer. In this review, we will first depict the mechanisms regulating ELS generation, focusing on the role played by lymphoid chemokines. We will then characterize ELS forming in target organs during autoimmune conditions, here exemplified by rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer, highlighting the relevance of the tissue-specific factors. Finally, we will discuss the clinical significance of ELS and the therapeutic potential of their inhibition and/or enhancement depending on the disease considered.