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dc.contributor.authorEllis, Gen_US
dc.contributor.authorPridgeon, Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorLamb, BWen_US
dc.contributor.authorAwsare, NSen_US
dc.contributor.authorOsaghae, Sen_US
dc.contributor.authorSmith, SGen_US
dc.contributor.authorMcNicholas, TAen_US
dc.contributor.authorGreen, JSAen_US
dc.description.abstract© British Association of Urological Surgeons 2014. Objectives: Flexible cystoscopy can cause patients significant psychological distress, especially when utilised in the diagnostic pathway for suspected bladder cancer. We aimed to assess the prevalence of general anxiety and depression, as well as procedure-related worry and pain in patients undergoing local anaesthetic flexible cystoscopy and to determine whether these conditions occur more frequently in subsets of the population. Patients and methods: Patients referred for flexible cystoscopy were invited to participate. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire containing the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a worry score and a question regarding the most stressful event in the diagnostic pathway. Following the procedure patients were also asked to complete a pain score. Results: A total of 175 patients participated in the study. The prevalence of significant anxiety was 15% and depression 3.5%. This was higher in younger, female and unmarried patients. Procedure-related worry and pain were generally low. Conclusions: We found the prevalence of anxiety and depression in patients undergoing flexible cystoscopy to be raised compared to a similar cohort of patients undergoing TRUS-guided prostate biopsy. We have identified subgroups more likely to experience these symptoms and have also identified the sections of the diagnostic pathway that are most likely to cause anxiety and depression. By doing this we can target those patients who are more likely to suffer during the diagnostic process and aim to improve their experience. We can also implement targeted changes to the pathway to reduce the impact it may have on patients’ mental health.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.en_US
dc.format.extent196 - 201en_US
dc.relation.ispartofJournal of Clinical Urologyen_US
dc.titlePsychological distress in out-patients undergoing flexible cystoscopy for the investigation of bladder canceren_US
pubs.notesNo embargoen_US

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