Centrosome amplification mediates small extracellular vesicles secretion via lysosome disruption
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Summary Bidirectional communication between cells and their surrounding environment is critical in both normal and pathological settings. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), which facilitate the horizontal transfer of molecules between cells, are recognized as an important constituent of cell-cell communication. In cancer, alterations in EV secretion contribute to the growth and metastasis of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes remain largely unknown. Here, we show that centrosome amplification is associated with and sufficient to promote small extracellular vesicle ( S EV) secretion in pancreatic cancer cells. This is a direct result due of lysosomal dysfunction, caused by increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) downstream of extra centrosomes. Defects in lysosome function promotes multivesicular body fusion with the plasma membrane, thereby enhancing S EV secretion. Furthermore, we find that S EVs secreted in response to amplified centrosomes are functionally distinct and activate pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These activated PSCs promote the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells in heterotypic 3-D cultures. We propose that S EVs secreted by cancer cells with amplified centrosomes influence the bidirectional communication between the tumor cells and the surrounding stroma to promote malignancy.