TRAIL regulatory receptors constrain human hepatic stellate cell apoptosis.
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The TRAIL pathway can mediate apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells to promote the resolution of liver fibrosis. However, TRAIL has the capacity to bind to regulatory receptors in addition to death-inducing receptors; their differential roles in liver fibrosis have not been investigated. Here we have dissected the contribution of regulatory TRAIL receptors to apoptosis resistance in primary human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC). hHSC isolated from healthy margins of liver resections from different donors expressed variable levels of TRAIL-R2/3/4 (but negligible TRAIL-R1) ex vivo and after activation. The apoptotic potential of TRAIL-R2 on hHSC was confirmed by lentiviral-mediated knockdown. A functional inhibitory role for TRAIL-R3/4 was revealed by shRNA knockdown and mAb blockade, showing that these regulatory receptors limit apoptosis of hHSC in response to both oligomerised TRAIL and NK cells. A close inverse ex vivo correlation between hHSC TRAIL-R4 expression and susceptibility to apoptosis underscored its central regulatory role. Our data provide the first demonstration of non-redundant functional roles for the regulatory TRAIL receptors (TRAIL-R3/4) in a physiological setting. The potential for these inhibitory TRAIL receptors to protect hHSC from apoptosis opens new avenues for prognostic and therapeutic approaches to the management of liver fibrosis.
AuthorsSingh, HD; Otano, I; Rombouts, K; Singh, KP; Peppa, D; Gill, US; Böttcher, K; Kennedy, PTF; Oben, J; Pinzani, M; Walczak, H; Fusai, G; Rosenberg, WMC; Maini, MK
- Immune Systems