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dc.contributor.authorGill, USen_US
dc.contributor.authorPallett, LJen_US
dc.contributor.authorKennedy, PTFen_US
dc.contributor.authorMaini, MKen_US
dc.description.abstractIn order to optimally refine the multiple emerging drug targets for hepatitis B virus (HBV), it is vital to evaluate virological and immunological changes at the site of infection. Traditionally liver biopsy has been the mainstay of HBV disease assessment, but with the emergence of non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, there has been a move away from tissue sampling. Here we argue that liver biopsy remains an important tool, not only for the clinical assessment of HBV but also for research progress and evaluation of novel agents. The importance of liver sampling has been underscored by recent findings of specialised subsets of tissue-resident immune subsets capable of efficient pathogen surveillance, compartmentalised in the liver and not sampled in the blood. Importantly, the assessment of virological parameters, such as cccDNA quantitation, also requires access to liver tissue. We discuss strategies to maximise information obtained from the site of infection and disease pathology. Fine needle aspirates of the liver may allow longitudinal sampling of the local virus/host landscape. The careful utilisation of liver tissue and aspirates in conjunction with blood will provide critical information in the assessment of new therapeutics for the functional cure of HBV.en_US
dc.format.extent767 - 775en_US
dc.rightsThis is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt and build upon this work, for commercial use, provided the original work is properly cited. See:
dc.subjectfine needle aspirateen_US
dc.subjecthepatic fibrosisen_US
dc.subjecthepatitis Ben_US
dc.subjectliver biopsyen_US
dc.subjectliver immunologyen_US
dc.subjecttissue resident cellsen_US
dc.subjectAntiviral Agentsen_US
dc.subjectBiopsy, Fine-Needleen_US
dc.subjectDNA, Viralen_US
dc.subjectHepatitis B virusen_US
dc.subjectHepatitis B, Chronicen_US
dc.subjectPredictive Value of Testsen_US
dc.subjectSensitivity and Specificityen_US
dc.subjectVirus Replicationen_US
dc.titleLiver sampling: a vital window into HBV pathogenesis on the path to functional cure.en_US
dc.rights.holder© Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
pubs.notesNot knownen_US

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