Durable graft-versus-leukaemia effects without donor lymphocyte infusions- results of a Phase II study of sequential T-replete allogeneic transplantation for high-risk acute myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplasia
British Journal of Haematology
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and high-risk myelodysplasia but has previously been limited to patients who achieve remission before transplant. New sequential approaches employing T-cell depleted transplantation directly after chemotherapy show promise but are burdened by viral infection and require donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) to augment donor chimerism and graft-versus-leukaemia effects. T-replete transplantation in sequential approaches could reduce both viral infection and DLI usage. We therefore performed a single-arm prospective Phase II clinical trial of sequential chemotherapy and T-replete transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning without planned DLI. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Forty-seven patients with relapsed/refractory AML or high-risk myelodysplasia were enrolled; 43 proceeded to transplantation. High levels of donor chimerism were achieved spontaneously with no DLI. Overall survival of transplanted patients was 45% and 33% at 1 and 3 years. Only one patient developed cytomegalovirus disease. Cumulative incidences of treatment-related mortality and relapse were 35% and 20% at 1 year. Patients with relapsed AML and myelodysplasia had the most favourable outcomes. Late-onset graft-versus-host disease protected against relapse. In conclusion, a T-replete sequential transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning is feasible for relapsed/refractory AML and myelodysplasia and can deliver graft-versus-leukaemia effects without DLI.