Reparative properties of a commercial fish protein hydrolysate preparation
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Background: A partially hydrolysed and dried product of pacific whiting fish is currently marketed as a health food supplement to support `` intestinal health''. However, there has been only limited scientific study regarding its true biological activity.Aims: We therefore tested its efficacy in a variety of models of epithelial injury and repair.Methods: Effects on proliferation were determined using [ H-3] thymidine incorporation into epithelial rat intestinal RIE- 1 and human colonic HT29 cells. Effects on restitution ( cell migration) were analysed using wounded HT29 monolayers and its ability to influence gastric injury analysed using a rat indomethacin restraint model. Partial characterisation of bioactive agents was performed using mass spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography.Results: Both cell proliferation and cell migration were increased by about threefold when added at 1 mg/ ml ( p< 0.01). Gastric injury was reduced by 59% when gavaged at 25 mg/ ml ( p< 0.05), results similar to using the potent cytoprotective agent epidermal growth factor at 12.5 mg/ ml. The vast majority of biological activity was soluble in ethanol, with glutamine in its single, di-, and tripeptide forms probably accounting for approximately 40% of the total bioactivity seen. Fatty acid constituents may also have contributed to cell migratory activity.Conclusions: Fish protein hydrolysate possesses biological activity when analysed in a variety of models of injury and repair and could provide a novel inexpensive approach for the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of non- steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs and other ulcerative conditions of the bowel. Further studies appear justified.