FGFR1 cleavage and nuclear translocation regulates breast cancer cell behavior.
801 - 817
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FGF-10 and its receptors, FGFR1 and FGFR2, have been implicated in breast cancer susceptibility and progression, suggesting that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling may be co-opted by breast cancer cells. We identify a novel pathway downstream of FGFR1 activation, whereby the receptor is cleaved and traffics to the nucleus, where it can regulate specific target genes. We confirm Granzyme B (GrB) as the protease responsible for cleavage and show that blocking GrB activity stopped FGFR1 trafficking to the nucleus and abrogates the promigratory effect of FGF stimulation. We confirm the in vivo relevance of our findings, showing that FGFR1 localized to the nucleus specifically in invading cells in both clinical material and a three-dimensional model of breast cancer. We identify target genes for FGFR1, which exert significant effects on cell migration and may represent an invasive signature. Our experiments identify a novel mechanism by which FGF signaling can regulate cancer cell behavior and provide a novel therapeutic target for treatment of invasive breast cancer.