Wearable RF sensors for non-invasive detection of blood-glucose levels
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Radio frequency (RF) techniques have the potential to provide blood glucose readings through sensing the glucose dependent change in dielectric properties of the biological tissue. Such technique can enable much desired non-invasive and continuous monitoring of blood glucose level. In this work, we present realistic glucose dependence of dielectric properties as well as basic understanding of resonator behaviour while radiating towards the lossy biological tissue. To investigate the potential of RF techniques, two resonators, operating at microwave frequencies when placed radiating towards the biological tissue, are designed and fabricated. The spiral resonator is tested with liquid and semi-solid phantoms containing different amounts of sugar. An analytical formulation to retrieve the dielectric properties of the biological tissues is improved. In order to perform realistic tests, novel tissue mimicking materials for an extremely wide frequency range are proposed. Glucose dependance of the blood mimicking material dielectric properties are further investigated by adding realistic glucose amounts to the blood mimicking material and dielectric spectroscopy is performed. Next, a single pole Cole-Cole model is fitted to the median of the dielectric property measurements. In addition, a patch resonator is simulated with four-layered digital phantom and tested with the four-layered physical tissue mimicking phantom. Finally, a double parameter measurement platform is constructed by combining the patch resonator and a commercial force sensor to perform controlled experiments with humans. Also, the force dependant response of the patch resonator is quantified. Soda tests is performed on five subjects with the platform, all subjects were asked to apply the same level of force. Spiral resonator is also applied to examine the glucose changes of two human subjects during the soda test. The results suggests that, although the glucose-dependance of the dielectric properties is relatively small, the input impedance of a microwave resonator is still sensitive to such small alterations.
- Theses