The Pharmacology of ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels (KATP).
Handb Exp Pharmacol
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ATP-sensitive K+ channels (KATP) are inwardly-rectifying potassium channels, broadly expressed throughout the body. KATP is regulated by adenine nucleotides, characteristically being activated by falling ATP and rising ADP levels thus playing an important physiological role by coupling cellular metabolism with membrane excitability. The hetero-octameric channel complex is formed of 4 pore-forming inward rectifier Kir6.x subunits (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2) and 4 regulatory sulfonylurea receptor subunits (SUR1, SUR2A, or SUR2B). These subunits can associate in various tissue-specific combinations to form functional KATP channels with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. KATP channels play many important physiological roles and mutations in channel subunits can result in diseases such as disorders of insulin handling, cardiac arrhythmia, cardiomyopathy, and neurological abnormalities. The tissue-specific expression of KATP channel subunits coupled with their rich and diverse pharmacology makes KATP channels attractive therapeutic targets in the treatment of endocrine and cardiovascular diseases.