Long term probability of detection of HIV-1 drug resistance after starting antiretroviral therapy in routine clinical practice.
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BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long term risk of development of HIV-1 drug resistance for patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) with three or four drug regimens in routine clinical practice. METHODS: We analysed a large cohort study of patients seen in one of six large HIV clinics in and around London, UK. The focus of this analysis was on patients who started ART with two nucleosides plus either a single protease inhibitor (PI), a PI with ritonavir, abacavir or a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). RESULTS: 4306 patients were followed; 1436 (33%) started with a single PI, 279 (6%) with a PI plus ritonavir, 156 (4%) with triple nucleosides and 2435 (57%) with an NNRTI. The overall cumulative risk of viral load failure was 38% by 6 years. Risk of > or =1 major IAS-USA mutation was 27% by 6 years; risk of mutations from at least two of the three main drug classes was 20% over the same period. These are lower limit estimates as test results were not available for many with viral load failure. Risk of PI mutations being detected in people who started ART with regimens containing a PI with ritonavir was significantly lower than the risk of NNRTI mutations being detected in those starting with NNRTI-containing regimens (relative hazard 0.3195% CI 0.15-0.61; p = 0.0008). CONCLUSION: In routine practice, rates of viral load failure and of resistance detection in patients who started ART with three or four drugs are appreciable.