Antenatal screening for Down syndrome using serum placental growth factor with the combined, quadruple, serum integrated and integrated tests.
e46955 - ?
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the value of first or second trimester placental growth factor (PlGF) as an additional antenatal screening marker for Down syndrome. DESIGN: Nested case-control study. SETTING: Antenatal screening service. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 532 Down syndrome pregnancies and 1,155 matched unaffected pregnancies. METHODS: Stored maternal serum samples (-40°C) were assayed for PlGF. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the screening performance of PlGF with the Combined, Quadruple, serum Integrated and Integrated tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Median PlGF levels in affected and unaffected pregnancies and screening performance (detection rates [DR] for specified false-positive rates [FPR] and vice versa). RESULTS: First trimester median PlGF was 15%, 28% and 39% lower in Down syndrome than unaffected pregnancies at 11, 12 and 13 completed weeks' gestation respectively (all p<0.001). Second trimester median PlGF was 31% lower at 14 weeks (p<0.001), and the difference decreased (6% lower at 17 weeks). At a 90% DR with first trimester markers measured at 13 weeks, adding PlGF decreased the FPR from 11.1 to 5.1% using the Combined test, 9.3% to 4.5% using the serum Integrated test, and 3.4% to 1.5% using the Integrated test (or 1.5 to 1.4% with first trimester markers measured at 11 weeks). Adding PlGF to the Quadruple test (measured at 15 weeks) decreased the FPR from 10.0% to 9.6% at a 90% DR. CONCLUSIONS: First trimester PlGF measurements improve the performance of antenatal screening for Down syndrome using the Combined, serum Integrated and Integrated tests. Second trimester PlGF measurements are of limited value.