Particle swarm optimization for routing and wavelength assignment in next generation WDM networks.
All-optical Wave Division Multiplexed (WDM) networking is a promising technology for long-haul backbone and large metropolitan optical networks in order to meet the non-diminishing bandwidth demands of future applications and services. Examples could include archival and recovery of data to/from Storage Area Networks (i.e. for banks), High bandwidth medical imaging (for remote operations), High Definition (HD) digital broadcast and streaming over the Internet, distributed orchestrated computing, and peak-demand short-term connectivity for Access Network providers and wireless network operators for backhaul surges. One desirable feature is fast and automatic provisioning. Connection (lightpath) provisioning in optically switched networks requires both route computation and a single wavelength to be assigned for the lightpath. This is called Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA). RWA can be classified as static RWA and dynamic RWA. Static RWA is an NP-hard (non-polynomial time hard) optimisation task. Dynamic RWA is even more challenging as connection requests arrive dynamically, on-the-fly and have random connection holding times. Traditionally, global-optimum mathematical search schemes like integer linear programming and graph colouring are used to find an optimal solution for NP-hard problems. However such schemes become unusable for connection provisioning in a dynamic environment, due to the computational complexity and time required to undertake the search. To perform dynamic provisioning, different heuristic and stochastic techniques are used. Particle Swarm Optimisation (PSO) is a population-based global optimisation scheme that belongs to the class of evolutionary search algorithms and has successfully been used to solve many NP-hard optimisation problems in both static and dynamic environments. In this thesis, a novel PSO based scheme is proposed to solve the static RWA case, which can achieve optimal/near-optimal solution. In order to reduce the risk of premature convergence of the swarm and to avoid selecting local optima, a search scheme is proposed to solve the static RWA, based on the position of swarm‘s global best particle and personal best position of each particle. To solve dynamic RWA problem, a PSO based scheme is proposed which can provision a connection within a fraction of a second. This feature is crucial to provisioning services like bandwidth on demand connectivity. To improve the convergence speed of the swarm towards an optimal/near-optimal solution, a novel chaotic factor is introduced into the PSO algorithm, i.e. CPSO, which helps the swarm reach a relatively good solution in fewer iterations. Experimental results for PSO/CPSO based dynamic RWA algorithms show that the proposed schemes perform better compared to other evolutionary techniques like genetic algorithms, ant colony optimization. This is both in terms of quality of solution and computation time. The proposed schemes also show significant improvements in blocking probability performance compared to traditional dynamic RWA schemes like SP-FF and SP-MU algorithms.
- Theses