Study and miniaturisation of antennas for ultra wideband communication systems
Wireless communications have been growing with an astonishing rate over the past few years and wireless terminals for future applications are required to provide diverse services. This rising demand prompts the needs for antennas able to cover multiple bandwidths or an ultrawide bandwidth for various systems. Since the release by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of a bandwidth of 7.5 GHz (from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz) for ultra wideband (UWB) wireless communications, UWB has been rapidly evolving as a potential wireless technology and UWB antennas have consequently drawn more and more attention from both academia and industries worldwide. Unlike traditional narrow band antennas, design and analysis of UWB antennas are facing more challenges and difficulties. A competent UWB antenna should be capable of operating over an ultra wide bandwidth as assigned by the FCC. At the same time, a small and compact antenna size is highly desired, due to the integration requirement of entire UWB systems. Another key requirement of UWB antennas is the good time domain behaviour, i.e. a good impulse response with minimal distortion. This thesis focuses on UWB antenna miniaturisation and analysis. Studies have been undertaken to cover the aspects of UWB fundamentals and antenna theory. Extensive investigations are also conducted on three different types of miniaturised UWB antennas. 5 The first type of miniaturised UWB antenna studied in this thesis is the loaded orthogonal half disc monopole antenna. An inductive load is introduced to broaden the impedance bandwidth as well as the pattern bandwidth, in other words, an equivalent size reduction is realised. The second type of miniaturised UWB antenna is the printed half disc monopole antenna. By simply halving the original antenna and tuning the width of the coplanar ground plane, a significant more than 50% size reduction is achieved. The third type of miniaturised UWB antenna is the printed quasi-self-complementary antenna. By exploiting a quasi-self-complementary structure and a built-in matching section, a small and compact antenna dimension is achieved. The performances and characteristics of the three types of miniaturised UWB antennas are studied both numerically and experimentally and the design parameters for achieving optimal operation of the antennas are also analysed extensively in order to understand the antenna operations. Also, time domain performance of the Coplanar Waveguide (CPW)-fed disc monopole antenna is examined in this thesis to demonstrate the importance of time domain study on UWB antennas. Over the past few years of my PhD study, I feel honoured and lucky to work with some of the most prestigious researchers in the Department of Electronic Engineering, Queen Mary, University of London. I would like to show my most cordial gratitude to those who have been helping me during the past few years. There would be no any progress without their generous and sincere support. First of all, I would like to thank my supervisors Professor Clive Parini and Professor Xiaodong Chen, for their kind supervision and encouragement. I am impressed by their notable academic background and profound understanding of the subjects, which have proved to be immense benefits to me. It has been my great pleasure and honour to be under their supervision and work with them. Second of all, I would like to thank Mr John Dupuy for his help in the fabrication and measurement of antennas I have designed during my PhD study. Also, a special acknowledgement goes to all of the staff for all the assistance throughout my graduate program.
- Theses