Dopamine reuptake transporter-single-photon emission computed tomography and transcranial sonography as imaging markers of prediagnostic Parkinson's disease.
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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine whether prediagnostic features of Parkinson's disease (PD) were associated with changes in dopamine reuptake transporter-single-photon emission computed tomography and transcranial sonography. METHODS: Prediagnostic features of PD (risk estimates, University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire, and finger-tapping scores) were assessed in a large cohort of older U.K. residents. A total of 46 participants were included in analyses of prediagnostic features and MDS-UPDRS scores with the striatal binding ratio on dopamine reuptake transporter-single-photon emission computed tomography and nigral hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography. RESULTS: The striatal binding ratio was associated with PD risk estimates (P = .040), University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (P = .002), Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire scores (P = .024), tapping speed (P = .024), and MDS-UPDRS motor scores (P = .009). Remotely collected assessments explained 26% of variation in the striatal binding ratio. The inclusion of MDS-UPDRS motor scores did not explain additional variance. The size of the nigral echogenic area on transcranial sonography was associated with risk estimates (P < .001) and MDS-UPDRS scores (P = .03) only. CONCLUSIONS: The dopamine reuptake transporter-single-photon emission computed tomography results correlated with motor and nonmotor features of prediagnostic PD, supporting its potential use as a marker in the prodromal phase of PD. Transcranial sonography results also correlated with risk scores and motor signs. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.