Pharmacometrically Driven Optimisation of Dose Regimens in Clinical Trials
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The dose regimen of a drug gives important information about the dose sizes, dose frequency and the duration of treatment. Optimisation of dose regimens is critical to ensure therapeutic success of the drug and to minimise its possible adverse effects. The central theme of this thesis is the Efficient Dosing (ED) algorithm - a computation algorithm developed by us for optimisation of dose regimens. In this thesis, we have attempted to develop a quantitative framework for measuring the efficiency of a dose regimen for specified criteria and computing the most efficient dose regimen using the ED algorithm. The criteria considered by us seek to prevent over- and under-exposure to the drug. For example, one of the criteria is to maintain the drug's concentration around a desired target level. Another criterion is to maintain the concentration within a therapeutic range or window. The ED algorithm and its various extensions are programmed in MATLAB R . Some distinguishing features of our methods are: mathematical explicitness in the optimisation process for a general objective function, creation of a theoretical base to draw comparisons among competing dose regimens, adaptability to any drug for which the PK model is known, and other computational features. We develop the algorithm further to compute the optimal ratio of two partner drugs in a fixed dose combination unit and the efficient dose regimens. In clinical trials, the parameters of the PK model followed by the drug are often unknown. We develop a methodology to apply our algorithm in an adaptive setting which enables estimation of the parameters while optimising the dose regimens for the typical subject in each cohort. A potential application of the ED algorithm for individualisation of dose regimens is discussed. We also discuss an application for computation of efficient dose regimens for obliteration of a pre-specified viral load.
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