Characterization of multi-wall carbon nanotubes and their applications
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Carbon nanotubes (CNT) and their applications is a field which has attract a lot of interest in the past two decades. Since the first invention of CNTs in 1991, and in view of utilising nanoantennas, the focus in many laboratories around the world has shifted to trying to lengthen nanotubes longer from nanometers to few centimeters. Eventually this could lead to CNTs’ use in sub-millimeter, millimiter wave and microwave antenna applications. In this thesis, fundamental properties of carbon nanotube films are investigated, and some applications such as the use of CNTs as absorbers or CNT doped liquid crystals are considered. The concept of frequency tunable patch antennas is also presented. Simulation and measurement results of the liquid crystal based antenna show that frequency tuning is possible, through the use of a liquid crystal cell as a substrate. Additionally, greater tuning can be achieved using liquid crystals with higher dielectric anisotropy at microwave frequencies. This can be achieved by using CNT doped liquid crystals. As mentioned, microwave and terahertz measurements of vertically aligned carbon nanotube arrays placed on the top surface of a rectangular silicon substrate are presented. The S-parameters are calculated allowing the extraction of the complex permittivity, permeability and conductivity of the samples. Theoretical models are being introduced delineating the behaviour of the multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) samples. The material properties of this film provide useful data for potential microwave and terahertz applications such as absorbers. Finally, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) modelling of CNTs is introduced, verifying the measurements that have been performed, confirming that CNT arrays can be highly absorptive. A novel estimation of the permittivity and permeability of an individual carbon nanotube is presented and a periodic structure is simulated, under periodic boundary conditions, consisting of solid anisotropic cylinders. In addition, the optical properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) arrays, when the periodicity is both within the sub-wavelength and wavelength iii regime are calculated. The effect of geometrical parameters of the tube such as length, diameter and inter-tube distance between two consecutive tubes are also examined.
- Theses