'Preconditioning' with low dose lipopolysaccharide aggravates the organ injury / dysfunction caused by hemorrhagic shock in rats.
e0122096 - ?
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METHODS: Male rats were 'pretreated' with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; i.p.) or LPS (1 mg/kg; i.p.) 24 h prior to HS. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was maintained at 30 ± 2 mmHg for 90 min or until 25% of the shed blood had to be re-injected to sustain MAP. This was followed by resuscitation with the remaining shed blood. Four hours after resuscitation, parameters of organ dysfunction and systemic inflammation were assessed. RESULTS: HS resulted in renal dysfunction, and liver and muscular injury. At a first glance, LPS preconditioning attenuated organ dysfunction. However, we discovered that HS-rats that had been preconditioned with LPS (a) were not able to sustain a MAP at 30 mmHg for more than 50 min and (b) the volume of blood withdrawn in these animals was significantly less than in the PBS-control group. This effect was associated with an enhanced formation of the nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS). Thus, a further control group in which all animals were resuscitated after 50 min of hemorrhage was performed. Then, LPS preconditioning aggravated both circulatory failure and organ dysfunction. Most notably, HS-rats pretreated with LPS exhibited a dramatic increase in NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, LPS preconditioning predisposed animals to an earlier vascular decompensation, which may be mediated by an excess of NO production secondary to induction of iNOS and activation of NF-κB. Moreover, LPS preconditioning increased the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which is likely to have contributed to the observed aggravation of organ injury/dysfunction caused by HS.
AuthorsSordi, R; Chiazza, F; Patel, NS; Doyle, RA; Collino, M; Thiemermann, C
- College Publications 
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