Factors Affecting Catheter Contact in the Human Left Atrium, its Impact on the Electrogram and Radiofrequency Ablation.
MetadataShow full item record
The interaction between the mapping/ablation catheter and left atrial (LA) myocardium potentially affects the LA electrical and mechanical properties and impacts on ablation efficacy. Using catheters able to provide real-time contact force (CF) measurement, it has become possible to explore these relationships in vivo. In 60 persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients, ablation CF was higher in the right than left wide area circumferential (WACA) lines and where steerable transseptal sheaths were used. Differences were also apparent in the burden of WACA segment reconnection but did not just reflect differences in ablation CFs, suggesting factors other than CF contribute to ablation efficacy. Relationships between ablation force time integral (FTI), impedance drop and electrogram attenuation were assessed in 15 persistent AF patients. FTI significantly correlated with electrogram attenuation and impedance drop from ablation. The relationship was stronger for the former but in both cases plateaued at 500g.s, suggesting no ablation efficacy gains beyond this. Factors further affecting CF and ablation efficacy, the latter judged by impedance drop, were assessed in 30 patients. The variability of the CF waveform and catheter locational stability were both affected by factors including atrial rhythm and catheter delivery mode. Greater CF variability, catheter drift and perpendicular catheter contact were associated with reduced ablation efficacy. The relationship between CF and the electrogram was assessed in 30 patients. The size of the electrogram complexes was affected by CF increases but only where initial CF was <10g. This was also the case for electrogram fractionation measurements. Increasing CF was associated with an increasing incidence of atrial ~ 3 ~ ectopics during sinus rhythm. Spectral parameters (dominant frequency and organisation index) were unaffected by CF. Various factors affect the contact between the catheter and LA myocardium. In turn, catheter contact significantly affects the electrogram during LA mapping and the efficacy of clinical radiofrequency ablation.
- Theses