Hydrodynamics of Gravel Bed Flows (Implication on Colmation)
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Bottom of the mountainous rivers is generally composed of natural gravels. Flow depth in such rivers is generally shallow, with the ratio of water depth to size of bed materials (known as relative submergence) rarely higher than 20. In this type of flow, gravels intrusion induces significant spatial variation of the flow characteristics near bed region, which is known as roughness layer. The simultaneous effects of natural gravels and water surface cause formation of complicated flow structure which is to some extent different from the flow with high relative submergence (flow with relative submergence higher than 40). Despite abundance of studies in shallow flows, there are only a limited number of studies concerning spatial organization of near bed flow field for such type of flow, with also contradictory results. The spatial organization of near bed turbulent flow characteristics is also important for transport of fine sediment. Transport of fine sediments is generally correlated to the asymmetry of vertical velocity. Asymmetry of vertical velocity also arises from a quasi-cyclic process of upward motion of low-velocity fluid parcels (ejection) and downward motion of high-velocity parcels (sweep), together known as bursting process. Spatial organization of bursting process and asymmetry of vertical velocity in near bed and respect to bed topography has not been inscribed properly. In heterogeneous flows, the use of spatially averaged turbulent transport equations, known as Double Averaged Navier-Stikes equations (DANS), is common. In DANS equations viscous drag, form drag and correlation of spatial fluctuation of time averaged velocities (known as form induced stresses) are explicitly expressed. Despite prevailing usage of DANS equations in study of gravel bed flow, examination of vertical velocity has not been performed appropriately by applying double averaging method. Also, the role of form induced stresses in vertical momentum flux has not been highlighted. In present thesis, Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry at near bed horizontal layer and Digital Particle Image Velocimetry in vertical planes are employed together with laser scanning of bed elevations to study flow field and turbulence structure over a coarse immobile gravel bed in submergence conditions ranges from 5 to 10. Spatial organization of flow characteristics at the near bed region is analyzed respect to bed topography. This analysis is also composed of spatial distribution of bursting process and vertical momentum flux. Moreover, vertical profiles of double averaged turbulent flow characteristics and form induced stresses with different relative submergences are compared. Results show that near bed flow field is characterized by a strip structure induced by secondary currents. Such structure tends to be disrupted by the effect of gravel protrusions. To better analyze the interaction between the flow field and gravel bed protrusions, cross-correlations of different velocity components and bed elevations in a horizontal layer just above gravel crests are computed. These results show that upward and downward flows occur not randomly on the bed, but in correspondence to upstream and downstream side of gravels. Also, turbulent momentum flux is directed downward in the downstream side of gravel crests and it is directed upward in upstream side of gravel crests. This is due to prevalence of ejection and sweep events respectively in upstream and downstream sides of gravel crests. These results are in agreement with formation of separation and reattachment zones around gravel crests. Moreover, spatial distribution of sweep and ejection events are organized in streamwise elongated strips with high and low values which are consistent with presence of secondary currents cells. Results obtained by double averaging method show that relative submergence affects the normalwise double averaged turbulence intensity profiles all along the flow depth, while only a weak effect, limited to the near bed region, is noticed on streamwise double averaged turbulence intensity profiles. Logarithmic law parameterization of double averaged velocity profiles shows that parameters change considerably with relative submergence and, in some cases, no clear log-law region was found. These results challenge application of log-law in such type of flow. Analysis of the vertical velocity shows that far from the bed, vertical turbulence momentum flux is upward, while below gravel crests it is downward. This behavior is resulted by prevalence of ejection events far from the bed and sweep events below gravel crests. Results show that vertical momentum flux resulted by form induced component is not significant, except below gravel crests which are upward in to the water column. A limited number of qualitative observations in the real case of fine sediments presence in the matrix of rough bed is in agreement with the results of turbulent flow characteristics. Sand ribbons are clearly formed due to secondary currents. Also, fine materials are mostly deposited and eroded respectively in downstream and upstream sides of gravel crests. The results of present study show that in general some regions actively participate in transport, while the other regions do not participate in the transport. From this basis, Rouse criterion has been developed by considering spatial variation of vertical momentum flux.
AuthorsMohajeri, Seyed Hossein
- Theses