Novel cardioprotective strategies for the uraemic heart.
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with underlying chronic kidney disease (CKD). Up to one third of patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome have CKD stage 3-5. Outcomes following acute myocardial infarction in patients with underlying CKD remain poor. CKD patients are routinely excluded from clinical trials in novel cardioprotective strategies resulting in a paucity of prospective data on which to base guidelines for clinical practice. The aims of this work were to: • Establish and characterise two models of chronic uraemia in rodents: the subtotal nephrectomy model and the adenine diet model. • Determine the effects of underlying chronic uraemia on myocardial ischaemia tolerance. • Examine pharmacological cardioprotective strategies in the context of underlying uraemia using a PARP inhibitor • Investigate the cardioprotective effects of ischaemic conditioning in the context of uraemia. Ischaemic preconditioning and postconditioning protocols were used in both uraemic and non-uraemic animals in a model of acute myocardial infarction. • Preliminary work, using standard molecular biological techniques, was carried out in order to confirm the putative survival pathways responsible for the effect of preconditioning. • Investigate the effect of combining early and late remote ischaemic preconditioning to identify whether summation of these strategies could provide additional tissue protection in a model of acute kidney injury. The results demonstrate that both models develop a uraemic phenotype. Subtotal nephrectomy animals exhibit reduced ischaemia tolerance. PARP inhibition as a pharmacological post conditioning agent was shown to be ineffective at conferring tissue protection, whereas both ischaemic preconditioning and postconditioning were effective cytoprotective strategies in both non-uraemic and uraemic animals. Furthermore, additional benefit was seen when early and late remote preconditioning were summated in a rodent model of acute kidney injury.This work provides a basis for future clinical trials in cardioprotection in the context of underlying CKD.
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