Microstructure of Fe-based and NiFe nanowires encapsulated by multiwalled carbon nanotube radial structures
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The crystalline iron-based nanowires encapsulated by multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been the subject of numerous studies owing to the range of potential applications. The presence of a-Fe (bcc)/y -Fe(fcc) junctions o ers the possibility of exploitation of the exchange bias effect, an interfacial magnetic phenomenon that plays a major role in magnetocaloric cooling, spintronic and high-density magnetic storage devices. This work is concerned with the synthesis and microstructural characterization of Fe-based and NiFe nanowires encapsulated by multiwall carbon nanotube radial structures. The known attributes of these structures are well matched to the magnetocaloric application. The primary aim of this work was to determine the unknown microstructural details of the encapsulated nanowire that are of relevance to the magnetocaloric application (junction types, location and orientation relative to the nanotube axis). The secondary aim was to explore the modi cation of the synthesis route to promote desirable attributes. This is the first report of a-Fe/y -Fe sequential junctions and a-Fe/Fe3C concentric junctions in encapsulated Fe-based nanowires. The presence of a-Fe/y -Fe junctions was inferred from the observation of a-Fe nanowires terminated by a ~100 nm length y-Fe crystallites of larger diameter. The a-Fe/Fe3C junctions exhibit the Bagaryatski orientation relationship: [110 ]bcck[100 ]orth. The degree of substrate roughness was found to be a means of tailoring details of the structure and composition of the encapsulated nanowires. NiFe encapsulated nanowires were found to contain crystallites of a-NiFe, y-NiFe and Ni3Fe and the sequential junctions -NiFe/Ni3Fe and a-NiFe/y-NiFe junctions.
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