Mitigating pest and pathogen impacts using resistant trees: a framework and overview to inform development and deployment in Europe and North America
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Forestry: An International Journal of Forest Research
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Pests and pathogens are an increasing threat to trees and forests, and the associated biodiversity and ecosystem services. Producing trees that are resistant to such threats is frequently emphasized by policymakers across Europe and North America. However, there are several approaches for developing and deploying resistant trees, and the process can be time-consuming and potentially complex and controversial. Here, we provide a framework to inform the selection of the most suitable approaches in different contexts, highlighting important constraints and considerations associated with using resistant trees. We identify six common steps within resistant tree programmes, and for each step discuss a range of options. Our proposed framework emphasizes interdependencies amongst these steps, and can inform decisions and approaches in proposed and ongoing resistance programmes. We also highlight potential pitfalls in the use of resistant trees, including: low durability of resistance, low viability against other threats, lack of acceptability/demand from forest owners and the public, and negative ecological impacts. Lastly, we emphasize the need to evaluate resistant trees alongside complementary strategies for mitigating the impacts of pests and pathogens (e.g. biosecurity, maintenance of adaptive capacity), and in the context of the other anthropogenic pressures faced by trees and forests.
AuthorsWoodcock, P; Cottrell, JE; Buggs, RJ; Quine, CP
- Organismal Biology