Protein expression during early stages of bone regeneration under hydrophobic and hydrophilic titanium domes. A pilot study.
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J Periodontal Res
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BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is significant evidence that, during the early stages of osseointegration, moderately rough hydrophilic (SLActive) surfaces can accelerate osteogenesis and increase bone-to-implant contact in comparison to hydrophobic (SLA) surfaces. However, very little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms behind the influence that surface chemistry modifications to increase hydrophilicity determine on bone healing. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time the proteins and related signalling pathways expressed during early osseous healing stages under SLA and SLActive titanium domes for guided bone regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One SLA and 1 SLActive dome with an internal diameter of 5.0 mm and a height of 3.0 mm were secured to the parietal bones of nine 6-month-old male New Zealand rabbits. Three animals were randomly euthanized at 4, 7 and 14 days and the newly formed tissues retrieved under the domes were analysed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. STRING and KEGG databases were applied for Gene Ontology and pathway analyses. RESULTS: A different modulation of several pathways was detected between the 2 groups at all healing times. The main differences in the osseous healing response associated to the 2 surfaces were related to pathways involved in regulating the inflammatory response, differentiation of osteoblast precursors and skeletogenesis. At day 7, the highest number of proteins and the highest cellular activity were observed in both groups, although a more complex and articulated proteome in terms of cellular metabolism and signal transduction was observed in SLActive samples. CONCLUSION: This is the first study describing the proteome expressed during early healing stages of guided bone regeneration and osseointegration. A combination of enhanced early osteogenic response and reduced inflammatory response were suggested for the hydrophilic group. Future studies are needed to corroborate these findings and explore the molecular effects of different titanium surfaces on the cascade of events taking place during bone formation.