FAR INFRARED Ge DETECTORS: CONDUCTION AND ABSORPTION MECHANISMS
This report describes an experimental study of the conduction and absorption mechanisms of Germanium in the temperature range 4.2 - 1.5 K. The results of these studies were mainly devoted to the developments of very far infrared detectors. Germanium (Ge) is a well-known semiconductor element used widely, when doped with small concentration of impurities, for detection of far infrared wavelengths up to 100~m. For doping concentrations less 16 3 than 1.0 x 10 atoms/em, the absorption of radiation in the range 100- 1000~m is very weak Because of the lack of the proper absorption mechanisms, except for some photo-hopping absorption in compensated samples around 1000llm.16 -3 In the range of doping between 1-8 x 10 cm ,there exists additional thermal activation energy not present in the lower concentrations. It was thought that this activation energy results from impurity interactions in this doping range, and hence a delocalized energy band is thus formed above the ground state level. However, the electrical conduction, the width of this band and its position, and the relevance of this band to the marked bolometric effect for 10o-lOOOWU wavelength detections are not yet clear. This thesis presents further study on this band together with its relation to the conduction and absorption mechanisms. Comparative studies were usually made for two samples of Ge differing in doping configuration, one of which does not have this additional activation energy (low concentration) . The firs two chapters give a review of the absorption and conduction mechanisms in Ge at low temperatures, and the performance relations and measurements for different types of infrared detectors. In this report, the conduction mechanism is studied for the two samples, and includes galvanometric properties, thermal properties and energy scattering processes for the carriers in the delocalized band. The absorption characteristics, 1n lOO-lOOO~ru range of the two samples were investigated. Germanium elements with absorbing surfaces are also studied using two different techniques, namely, surface ion implantation and metal film deposition. The mutual effects of the implanted surface and the bulk material are discussed and suggestions for the future of this technique are given. Finally, the design and performance of the constructed high sensitivity far infrared Ge detectors using the higher concentration sample are given. Theoretical noise limitations were reached in these detectors. Heasurements and practicaI. astronomical applications are also given.
AuthorsEl-Atawy, SAMIR ABDALLAH
- Theses