THE BEHAVIOUR OF GROUND ANCHORS IN SAND
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This thesis includes experimental and theoretical work performed to investigate the behaviour of ground anchors in sand. The anchor footing used was a circular plate connected to a tie rod. The experimental work was carried out by installing the anchor in a l830mm x 1830mm x l220mm deep tank containing dry sand. The sand sample was prepared by using a vibrator fixed to the bottom of the tank. The anchor was pulled out at a constant rate of strain and the load-displacement curve was recorded on a plotter. The vibration of the tank was defined by deter.mining the acceleratton and amplitude of the motion in the horizontal and vertical directions. A density tube and a hydraulic gauge were designed to investigate the distribution of stresses in sand. The variation of the vibration time, the constant rate of strain, theshafVplate diameter, the plate thickness/plate diameter, and the boundary distance with the load-displacement curve were also investigated. The load-displacement curve of different diameter plates embedded at various depths for different times of vibration were recorded. To investigate the behaviour of ground anchors theoretically, the finite element technique was used and a computer progra~ developed. A linear stress-strain relationship was used to predj.ct and investigate the behaviour of the anchor. A non-linear stress-strain relationship and a failure criterion were also used to predict the load-displacement curve of the vertical anchor. The effect of the parameters which were investigated experimental:lll;;l.were.allso,examined. The distribution of the load on the anchor plate and the extent of the failure zone were plotted. The predicted and experimental results in this thesis were compared with laboratory and field results obtained by previous researchers.
AuthorsTsangarides, Stelios Nicolaou
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