The cooperation among authorities in implementing the regulatory framework for electronic money : Malaysia as a case study
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The advance in information technology has encouraged many countries to develop diverse methods of delivering information and communicating. The enhancement of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has made it possible to deliver information and communication more rapidly and conveniently. Many emerging economies have taken advantage of ICT, including it in its development agenda. The development of ICT has had an impact on the provision of retail payment systems and its instruments. One of the main instruments, electronic money, promises to benefit the users with all the advantages of traditional notes and coins, and much more. Many countries have established or are considering the establishment of a regulatory framework of electronic money with its mass use in view. This volume examines the regulatory framework of electronic money, which some emerging economies have already established. It analyses the challenges faced in implementing laws and regulations for an evolving payment instrument where the regulatory framework may quickly become obsolete. The continuing development of electronic money with additional features and functions may invoke legislation leading to cross-regulatory functions among the authorities. The thesis is that the success of implementing the regulatory framework for electronic money will depend on the sound and effective coordination among relevant authorities. The role of the central bank and its relation to relevant authorities will be closely examined, because the central bank is often responsible for the development of payment systems, both wholesale and retail, especially in emerging economies, and plays a key role in its regulation. The use of a Memorandum of Understanding is proposed to ensure effective coordination and cooperation among relevant authorities. Malaysia will be used as the case study as the government has been enthusiastic in adopting electronic money, being involved in its development, implementation and regulation, which may not always be appropriate. Analysis in this thesis will be based on information as of 1 September 2004. The first three chapters of this volume will discuss the enhancement of ICT in emerging economies and the efforts taken to develop retail payment systems in consonant with ICT. Evaluation will be made on the relationship between ICT and the need to modernise the retail payment, which includes developing its regulatory framework. Analysis will then be made specifically on electronic money, focusing on stored-valued products. The overall development on stored-valued cards and why the acceptance of this product was initially slow will be examined, and then the underlying regulatory structure that may affect this is assessed. The last two chapters will focus on Malaysia. Analysis will be made on the approach taken in developing electronic money and its regulatory framework. The roles and functions of the relevant authorities involved will be critically examined, leading to a proposal to execute a Memorandum of Understanding among the authorities as a mechanism of ensuring the effective coordination and cooperation between the parties.
AuthorsZahudi, Zalina Muhamed
- Theses