Antenna and radio channel characterisation for low‐power personal and body area networks
The continuous miniaturisation of sensors, as well as the progression in wearable electronics, embedded software, digital signal processing and biomedical technologies, have led to new usercentric networks, where devices can be carried in the user’s pockets, attached to the user’s body. Body-centric wireless communications (BCWCs) is a central point in the development of fourth generation mobile communications. Body-centric wireless networks take their place within the personal area networks, body area networks and sensor networks which are all emerging technologies that have a wide range of applications (such as, healthcare, entertainment, surveillance, emergency, sports and military). The major difference between BCWC and conventional wireless systems is the radio channels over which the communication takes place. The human body is a hostile environment from a radio propagation perspective and it is therefore important to understand and characterise the effects of the human body on the antenna elements, the radio channel parameters and, hence, system performance. This thesis focuses on the study of body-worn antennas and on-body radio propagation channels. The performance parameters of five different narrowband (2.45 GHz) and four UWB (3.1- 10.6 GHz) body-worn antennas in the presence of human body are investigated and compared. This was performed through a combination of numerical simulations and measurement campaigns. Parametric studies and statistical analysis, addressing the human body effects on the performance parameters of different types of narrowband and UWB antennas have been presented. The aim of this study is to understand the human body effects on the antenna parameters and specify the suitable antenna in BCWCs at both 2.45 GHz and UWB frequencies. Extensive experimental investigations are carried out to study the effects of various antenna types on the on-body radio propagation channels as well. Results and analysis emphasize the best body-worn antenna for reliable and power-efficient on-body communications. Based on the results and analysis, a novel dual-band and dual-mode antenna is proposed for power-efficient and reliable on-body and off-body communications. The on-body performance of the DBDM antenna at 2.45 GHz is compared with other five narrowband antennas. Based on the results and analysis of six narrowband and four UWB antennas, antenna specifications and design guidelines are provided that will help in selecting the best body-worn antenna for both narrowband and UWB systems to be applied in body-centric wireless networks (BCWNs). A comparison between IV the narrowband and UWB antenna parameters are also provided. At the end of the thesis, the subject-specificity of the on-body radio propagation channel at 2.45 GHz and 3-10 GHz was experimentally investigated by considering eight real human test subjects of different shapes, heights and sizes. The subject-specificity of the on-body radio propagation channels was compared between the narrowband and UWB systems as well.
AuthorsKhan, Mohammad Monirujjaman
- Theses