Robust and stable discrete adjoint solver development for shape optimisation of incompressible flows with industrial applications
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This thesis investigates stabilisation of the SIMPLE-family discretisations for incompressible flow and their discrete adjoint counterparts. The SIMPLE method is presented from typical \prediction-correction" point of view, but also using a pressure Schur complement approach, which leads to a wider class of schemes. A novel semicoupled implicit solver with velocity coupling is proposed to improve stability. Skewness correction methods are applied to enhance solver accuracy on non-orthogonal grids. An algebraic multi grid linear solver from the HYPRE library is linked to flow and discrete adjoint solvers to further stabilise the computation and improve the convergence rate. With the improved implementation, both of flow and discrete adjoint solvers can be applied to a wide range of 2D and 3D test cases. Results show that the semi-coupled implicit solver is more robust compared to the standard SIMPLE solver. A shape optimisation of a S-bend air flow duct from a VW Golf vehicle is studied using a CAD-based parametrisation for two Reynolds numbers. The optimised shapes and their flows are analysed to con rm the physical nature of the improvement. A first application of the new stabilised discrete adjoint method to a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane channel flow is presented. A CFD model of the RO membrane process with a membrane boundary condition is added. Two objective functions, pressure drop and permeate flux, are evaluated for various spacer geometries such as open channel, cavity, submerged and zigzag spacer arrangements. The flow and the surface sensitivity of these two objective functions is computed and analysed for these geometries. An optimisation with a node-base parametrisation approach is carried out for the zigzag con guration channel flow in order to reduce the pressure drop. Results indicate that the pressure loss can be reduced by 24% with a slight reduction in permeate flux by 0.43%.
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