NUTRIENT EFFECTS IN INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
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Abstract Background: Not only does IBD lead to nutritional deficiencies, but also nutrients influence its pathophysiology: exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective primary treatment in Crohn’s disease; and vitamin D (VitD) is involved in its pathogenesis and course. Aims: We hypothesised that nutrients impact on the course of IBD. We therefore studied the effect of EEN i) on long term clinical course in children; ii) on CD58, a costimulatory molecule at the intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines, iii) adults with Crohn’s disease. We examined the possible effect of serum vitamin D levels on the course of IBD and also the possible role of ethnicity in our paediatric and adult populations that were treated with EEN but also in our general adult population. Results Chapter II: 56 paediatric patients with Crohn’s disesase were followed up for 5 years. 57% of patients achieved remission after 6 weeks of EEN. Achievement of clinical remission within 6 weeks of EEN was significantly associated with a longer time to relapse and to treatment escalation. VitD deficiency was common; and those patients who were deficient were significantly more likely to require corticosteroids and also needed thiopurines sooner. Chapter III: CD58 was expressed in the IEC isolated from IBD patients and healthy controls. EN down-regulated the expression of CD58 on IEC lines. Chapter IV: 22 adult patients with Crohn’s disease with a mean age of 30.8 years were given EEN and followed up for a mean time of 1.9 years. 22.7% of patients went into clinical remission and 77.3% experienced a clinical response. By the end of follow up 63.6% (14/22) of patients had clinically relapsed and 36.4% required surgery during their follow up. There was no difference between South Asian and Caucasian patients in the disease outcomes after administration of EEN. Chapter V: Bangladeshis were more often vitamin D deficient than white Caucasian patients; however vitamin D status was not associated with the course of IBD. Bangladeshis developed perianal disease and required thiopurines earlier in their disease course. Bangladeshi patients with UC had more extensive disease. Conclusions: EEN, when successful, improves the long term outcome of Crohn’s disease in children, possibly in part, by down-regulating CD58 on the IEC. VitD deficiency may influence the clinical course of IBD; however our results were contradictory between children and adults and significantly limited by the assessment of the vitamin D level at a single time point.
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