Crowd Analysis using visual and non-visual sensors, a survey
This paper proposes a critical survey of crowd analysis techniques using visual and non-visual sensors. Automatic crowd understanding has a massive impact on several applications including surveillance and security, situation awareness, crowd management, public space design, intelligent and virtual environments. In case of emergency, it enables practical safety applications by identifying crowd situational context information. This survey identifies different approaches as well as relevant work on crowd analysis by means of visual and non-visual techniques. Multidisciplinary research groups are addressing crowd phenomenon and its dynamics ranging from social, and psychological aspects to computational perspectives. The possibility to use smartphones as sensing devices and fuse this information with video sensors data, allows to better describe crowd dynamics and behaviors. Eventually, challenges and further research opportunities with reference to crowd analysis are exposed.