Automatic transcription of polyphonic music exploiting temporal evolution
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Automatic music transcription is the process of converting an audio recording into a symbolic representation using musical notation. It has numerous applications in music information retrieval, computational musicology, and the creation of interactive systems. Even for expert musicians, transcribing polyphonic pieces of music is not a trivial task, and while the problem of automatic pitch estimation for monophonic signals is considered to be solved, the creation of an automated system able to transcribe polyphonic music without setting restrictions on the degree of polyphony and the instrument type still remains open. In this thesis, research on automatic transcription is performed by explicitly incorporating information on the temporal evolution of sounds. First efforts address the problem by focusing on signal processing techniques and by proposing audio features utilising temporal characteristics. Techniques for note onset and offset detection are also utilised for improving transcription performance. Subsequent approaches propose transcription models based on shift-invariant probabilistic latent component analysis (SI-PLCA), modeling the temporal evolution of notes in a multiple-instrument case and supporting frequency modulations in produced notes. Datasets and annotations for transcription research have also been created during this work. Proposed systems have been privately as well as publicly evaluated within the Music Information Retrieval Evaluation eXchange (MIREX) framework. Proposed systems have been shown to outperform several state-of-the-art transcription approaches. Developed techniques have also been employed for other tasks related to music technology, such as for key modulation detection, temperament estimation, and automatic piano tutoring. Finally, proposed music transcription models have also been utilized in a wider context, namely for modeling acoustic scenes.