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dc.contributor.authorVartoukian, SRen_US
dc.date.accessioned2016-09-09T12:20:00Z
dc.date.available2016-08-07en_US
dc.date.issued2016-11en_US
dc.date.submitted2016-08-08T14:57:25.863Z
dc.identifier.issn1349-0079en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/15112
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: The majority of environmental bacteria and around a third of oral bacteria remain uncultivated. Furthermore, several bacterial phyla have no cultivable members and are recognised only by detection of their DNA by molecular methods. Possible explanations for the resistance of certain bacteria to cultivation in purity in vitro include: unmet fastidious growth requirements; inhibition by environmental conditions or chemical factors produced by neighbouring bacteria in mixed cultures; or conversely, dependence on interactions with other bacteria in the natural environment, without which they cannot survive in isolation. Auxotrophic bacteria, with small genomes lacking in the necessary genetic material to encode for essential nutrients, frequently rely on close symbiotic relationships with other bacteria for survival, and may therefore be recalcitrant to cultivation in purity. HIGHLIGHT: Since in-vitro culture is essential for the comprehensive characterisation of bacteria, particularly with regard to virulence and antimicrobial resistance, the cultivation of uncultivated organisms has been a primary focus of several research laboratories. Many targeted and open-ended strategies have been devised and successfully used. Examples include: the targeted detection of specific bacteria in mixed plate cultures using colony hybridisation; growth in simulated natural environments or in co-culture with 'helper' strains; and modified media preparation techniques or development of customised media eg. supplementation of media with potential growth-stimulatory factors such as siderophores. CONCLUSION: Despite significant advances in recent years in methodologies for the cultivation of previously uncultivated bacteria, a substantial proportion remain to be cultured and efforts to devise high-throughput strategies should be a high priority.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was supported by The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under award R37DE016937en_US
dc.format.extent142 - 149en_US
dc.languageengen_US
dc.relation.ispartofJ Oral Bioscien_US
dc.rightshttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.job.2016.08.001
dc.subjectbacteriologyen_US
dc.subjectcultureen_US
dc.subjectisolationen_US
dc.subjectmicrobiomeen_US
dc.titleCultivation strategies for growth of uncultivated bacteria.en_US
dc.typeArticle
dc.rights.holderCrown Copyright © 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Japanese Association for Oral Biology. All rights reserved.
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.job.2016.08.001en_US
pubs.author-urlhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28392745en_US
pubs.issue4en_US
pubs.notesNot knownen_US
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry/Institute of Dentistry
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry/Institute of Dentistry/Clinical & Diagnostic Oral Sciences
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/REF
pubs.organisational-group/Queen Mary University of London/REF/REF - IoD
pubs.publication-statusPublisheden_US
pubs.volume58en_US


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