Anatomy of the sign-problem in heavy-dense QCD
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EUROPEAN PHYSICAL JOURNAL C
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QCD at finite densities of heavy quarks is investigated using the density-of-states method. The phase factor expectation value of the quark determinant is calculated to unprecedented precision as a function of the chemical potential. Results are validated using those from a reweighting approach where the latter can produce a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We confirm the particle–hole symmetry at low temperatures, find a strong sign problem at intermediate values of the chemical potential, and an inverse Silver Blaze feature for chemical potentials close to the onset value: here, the phase-quenched theory underestimates the density of the full theory.
AuthorsGarron, N; Langfeld, K; Bechtle, P; Beck, HP; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, AJ; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, VA; Bedognetti, M; Bee, CP; Beemster, LJ; Beermann, TA; Begel, M; Behr, JK; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, AS; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, NL; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, EB; Benitez, J; Garcia, JAB; Benjamin, DP; Bensinger, JR; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, EB; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, NR; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, FU; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, IA; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, GJ; Bylund, OB; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethke, S; Bevan, AJ; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, RM; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, NV; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, JB; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bjergaard, DM; Black, CW; Black, JE; Black, KM; Blackburn, D; Blair, RE; Blanchard, J-B; Blanco, JE; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, GJ; Bobrovnikov, VS; Bocchetta, SS; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; et al.
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