Collective modes and thermodynamics of the liquid state.
016502 - ?
Rep Prog Phys
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Strongly interacting, dynamically disordered and with no small parameter, liquids took a theoretical status between gases and solids with the historical tradition of hydrodynamic description as the starting point. We review different approaches to liquids as well as recent experimental and theoretical work, and propose that liquids do not need classifying in terms of their proximity to gases and solids or any categorizing for that matter. Instead, they are a unique system in their own class with a notably mixed dynamical state in contrast to pure dynamical states of solids and gases. We start with explaining how the first-principles approach to liquids is an intractable, exponentially complex problem of coupled non-linear oscillators with bifurcations. This is followed by a reduction of the problem based on liquid relaxation time τ representing non-perturbative treatment of strong interactions. On the basis of τ, solid-like high-frequency modes are predicted and we review related recent experiments. We demonstrate how the propagation of these modes can be derived by generalizing either hydrodynamic or elasticity equations. We comment on the historical trend to approach liquids using hydrodynamics and compare it to an alternative solid-like approach. We subsequently discuss how collective modes evolve with temperature and how this evolution affects liquid energy and heat capacity as well as other properties such as fast sound. Here, our emphasis is on understanding experimental data in real, rather than model, liquids. Highlighting the dominant role of solid-like high-frequency modes for liquid energy and heat capacity, we review a wide range of liquids: subcritical low-viscous liquids, supercritical state with two different dynamical and thermodynamic regimes separated by the Frenkel line, highly-viscous liquids in the glass transformation range and liquid-glass transition. We subsequently discuss the fairly recent area of liquid-liquid phase transitions, the area where the solid-like properties of liquids have become further apparent. We then discuss gas-like and solid-like approaches to quantum liquids and theoretical issues that are similar to the classical case. Finally, we summarize the emergent view of liquids as a unique system with a mixed dynamical state, and list several areas where interesting insights may appear and continue the extraordinary liquid story.