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dc.contributor.authorAl-Moghrabi, Den_US
dc.contributor.authorPandis, Nen_US
dc.contributor.authorFleming, PSen_US
dc.description.abstractOBJECTIVE: In the view of the widespread acceptance of indefinite retention, it is important to determine the effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers on periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was undertaken based on a defined electronic and gray literature search strategy ( PROSPERO: CRD42015029169). The following databases were searched (up to October 2015); MEDLINE via OVID, PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, LILACS, BBO,, the National Research Register, and ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database. Randomized and non-randomized controlled clinical trials, prospective cohort studies, and case series (minimum sample size of 20) with minimum follow-up periods of 6 months reporting periodontal health, survival and failure rates of retainers, cost-effectiveness, and impact of orthodontic retainers on patient-reported outcomes were identified. The Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the quality of included trials. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were identified, 18 randomized controlled trials and 6 prospective cohort studies. Of these, only 16 were deemed to be of high quality. Meta-analysis was unfeasible due to considerable clinical heterogeneity and variations in outcome measures. The mean failure risk for mandibular stainless steel fixed retainers bonded from canine to canine was 0.29 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.26, 0.33) and for those bonded to canines only was 0.25 (95 % CI: 0.16, 0.33). A meta-regression suggested that failure of fixed stainless steel mandibular retainers was not directly related to the period elapsed since placement (P = 0.938). CONCLUSION: Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to elucidate the benefits and potential harms associated with orthodontic retainers.en_US
dc.format.extent24 - ?en_US
dc.relation.ispartofProg Orthoden_US
dc.rightsThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
dc.subjectFailure rateen_US
dc.subjectOrthodontic retaineren_US
dc.subjectPatient-reported outcomesen_US
dc.subjectSurvival rateen_US
dc.subjectCost-Benefit Analysisen_US
dc.subjectMeta-Analysis as Topicen_US
dc.subjectNon-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topicen_US
dc.subjectOrthodontic Retainersen_US
dc.subjectOrthodontics, Correctiveen_US
dc.subjectPeriodontal Diseasesen_US
dc.subjectRandomized Controlled Trials as Topicen_US
dc.subjectStainless Steelen_US
dc.subjectTreatment Outcomeen_US
dc.titleThe effects of fixed and removable orthodontic retainers: a systematic review.en_US
dc.rights.holder© The Author(s). 2016
pubs.notesNo embargoen_US
pubs.notesOpen Access Publicationen_US

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