Novel Therapies in Acute Kidney Injury
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Renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) which is in turn the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. The principle aim of this thesis was to evaluate potential new therapies that might afford protection against IRI in both in vitro and in vivo settings. Recent evidence suggests that nitrite (NO2-) may play an important role in protecting the myocardium from IRI. Our initial work into the role of NO2- in an in vitro model of renal IRI in proximal tubular epithelial cells provided evidence that NO2- can prevent apoptosis and preserve cell viability. This lead to an in vivo study where high NO2- concentrations (50 mg/L) were given orally to rats for 7 days prior to inducing renal IRI but no beneficial effects of this treatment were observed. Another potential treatment identified was thiamine (vitamin B1) and this, like NO2-was investigated to see if it had the potential to protect rats from AKI injury. It has been previously recognized that in renal IRI the high energy phosphate ATP is found to be severely depleted whilst is is known that thiamine can play a pivotal role in generating ATP. Furthermore, thiamine has previously been demonstrated to protect against myocardial ischaemic injury and has the ability to reduce myocardial infarct size. In vitro, thiamine was found to reduce the degree of apoptosis in cultured HK-2 cells caused by ischaemia whilst in vivo it afforded protection against AKI caused by renal IRI by anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Finally, a study into the possible therapeutic role of gene therapy with bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) in renal IRI was undertaken. Previous work has established that i.v. BMP-7 is able to protect against renal IRI but it has also been associated with ectopic bone formation at the site of injection. Therefore another method to increase circulating BMP-7 was sought. We initially found that BMP-7 gene therapy could attenuate apoptosis and preserves cell viability in an in vitro model of renal IRI. However, whilst in vivo gene therapy with electroporation of BMP-7 plasmid DNA increased BMP-7 expression in mice serum 2 days post electroporation, it was unable to protect the animals against IRI induced AKI. In rats the direct injection of naked DNA BMP-7 plasmid systematic 2 days prior to renal IRI was able to upregulate BMP-7 expression 4 days later in kidney tissue. Despite this it was unable to afford protection against renal IRI. Apoptosis and necrosis play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of renal IRI induced AKI. In this thesis we investigated the role of three putative therapeutic agents and their role in apoptosis and necrosis in vitro in PTECs and in vivo against renal IRI induced AKI. All three therapeutic drugs were able to attenuate apoptosis in PTECs but were unable to protect against necrosis, whilst against renal IRI induced AKI only thiamine was found to be protective. Thiamine appears to hold the most promise and more work needs to be undertaken so that its potential benefit in AKI can be realised.
AuthorsMemon, Shoab Ahmed
- Theses