Robust gait recognition under variable covariate conditions
Gait is a weak biometric when compared to face, fingerprint or iris because it can be easily affected by various conditions. These are known as the covariate conditions and include clothing, carrying, speed, shoes and view among others. In the presence of variable covariate conditions gait recognition is a hard problem yet to be solved with no working system reported. In this thesis, a novel gait representation, the Gait Flow Image (GFI), is proposed to extract more discriminative information from a gait sequence. GFI extracts the relative motion of body parts in different directions in separate motion descriptors. Compared to the existing model-free gait representations, GFI is more discriminative and robust to changes in covariate conditions. In this thesis, gait recognition approaches are evaluated without the assumption on cooperative subjects, i.e. both the gallery and the probe sets consist of gait sequences under different and unknown covariate conditions. The results indicate that the performance of the existing approaches drops drastically under this more realistic set-up. It is argued that selecting the gait features which are invariant to changes in covariate conditions is the key to developing a gait recognition system without subject cooperation. To this end, the Gait Entropy Image (GEnI) is proposed to perform automatic feature selection on each pair of gallery and probe gait sequences. Moreover, an Adaptive Component and Discriminant Analysis is formulated which seamlessly integrates the feature selection method with subspace analysis for fast and robust recognition. Among various factors that affect the performance of gait recognition, change in viewpoint poses the biggest problem and is treated separately. A novel approach to address this problem is proposed in this thesis by using Gait Flow Image in a cross view gait recognition framework with the view angle of a probe gait sequence unknown. A Gaussian Process classification technique is formulated to estimate the view angle of each probe gait sequence. To measure the similarity of gait sequences across view angles, the correlation of gait sequences from different views is modelled using Canonical Correlation Analysis and the correlation strength is used as a similarity measure. This differs from existing approaches, which reconstruct gait features in different views through 2D view transformation or 3D calibration. Without explicit reconstruction, the proposed method can cope with feature mis-match across view and is more robust against feature noise.
- Theses