The Association Between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Parkinson’s Disease
Journal of Parkinson's Disease
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In recent years, an emerging body of evidence has forged links between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In observational studies, those with T2DM appear to be at increased risk of developing PD, as well as experiencing faster progression and a more severe phenotype of PD, with the effects being potentially mediated by several common cellular pathways. The insulin signalling pathway, for example, may be responsible for neurodegeneration via affecting insulin dysregulation, aggregation of amyloids, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and altered synaptic plasticity. In light of these potential shared disease mechanisms, clinical trials are now investigating the use of established diabetes drugs targeting insulin resistance in the management of PD. This review will discuss the epidemiological links between T2DM and PD, the potential shared cellular mechanisms, and assess the relevant treatment options for disease modification of PD.