In Vitro Study of the Effects of Topical Treatments with Silver Compounds on the Inhibition of Demineralisation of Hydroxyapatite Discs and Human Enamel
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Despite years of use, the enamel demineralisation inhibitory mechanisms of topical treatments with silver compounds remain obscure. This study aimed to investigate the effects of topical treatments with silver compounds, including AgNO3, AgF and Ag[NH3]2F (silver diammine fluoride; SDF), on demineralisation of hydroxyapatite (HAP) discs and human enamel. Further, the dose-response effects of these silver compounds on demineralisation of human enamel were also investigated. The dose-response effect of Ag+ in solution on demineralisation was investigated using scanning microradiography (SMR). The effects of topical treatments with AgNO3, AgF and Ag[NH3]2F on demineralisation of HAP discs and human enamel were investigated using real-time Ca2+, Ag+ and F- ion selective electrodes (ISEs), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and 31P and 19F magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR). The results from this study suggest that the inhibitory mechanism of topical treatment with AgNO3 is associated with the formation of a Ag3PO4 protective barrier. Whereas, the inhibitory mechanism of topical treatment with AgF or Ag[NH3]2F is associated with the F- released from topically treated sample surfaces and the formation of a protective barrier composed of Ag3PO4, CaF2 and FHA. Further, the inhibitory efficacy of topical treatment with AgNO3 decreased with increasing concentration, whereas, the inhibitory efficacy of topical treatment with AgF or Ag[NH3]2F increased with increasing concentration.
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