The mechanisms of the rhinitic process are complex. Previous studies upon nasal
epithelial cells have begun to investigate rhinitis. HNECs from turbinate explant
tissue were taken from three patient groups (Normals, Chronic Rhinosinusitics and
The study, firstly, aims to establish fundamental differences in cytokine activity
between allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis by analysing baseline levels
of cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 and subsequent impact of bacterial endotoxin.
Secondly the study analyses the affect of macrolides on activity in each subgroup.
HNECs were grown from the biopsy specimens as explant culture. Standardised
exposures to LPS bacterial endotoxin and macrolide were carried out. The
concentration of each mediator present in the medium at the end of incubation
was assessed by ELISA). A final quantity of total cellular protein was obtained.
Baseline levels of IL-6 in unstimulated Allergic Rhinitics are
significantly higher than in Normal patients. Baseline levels of IL-8, however, are
lowest in Allergics. LPS significantly stimulates Allergics to increase production
of both IL-6 and IL-8. Macrolides lower IL-6 and IL-8 in both stimulated and
unstimulated AR cells.
Baseline levels of IL-6 and IL-8 are higher in CRS than AR and Normals. LPS
significantly raises IL-6 and IL-8 in CRS. Macrolides increase IL-6 and IL-8 in
stimulated CRS cells however reduce levels of both in un-stimulated cells.
Pre-existing neutrophilic and eosinophilic activity in CRS subjects may explain the
increased baseline levels of both cytokines upon macrolide exposure.
Whilst some studies have suggested macrolides act as antimicrobial, others have
suggested that it is their anti-inflammatory effects that are more relevant.
Treatment for Allergic Rhinitis needs to be effective long-term. The results here
are novel and encourage further research to improve understanding of the effects of
macrolides in a potentially pivotal role.||en_US