Blockchain Support for Flexible Queries with Granular Access Control to Electronic Medical Records (EMR)
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In this paper, we propose an architecture for Blockchain-based Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) called GAA-FQ (Granular Access Authorisation supporting Flexible Queries) that comprises an access model and an access authorisation scheme. Unlike existing Blockchain schemes, our access model can authorise different levels of granularity of authorisation, whilst maintaining compatibility with the underlying Blockchain data structure. Furthermore, the authorisation, encryption, and decryption algorithms proposed in the GAA-FQ scheme dispense with the need to use a public key infrastructure (PKI) and hence improve the computation performance needed to support more granular and distributed, yet authorised, EMR data queries. We validated the computation performance and transmission efficiency for GAA-FQ using a simulation of GAA-FQ against an access control scheme for EMRs called ESPAC as our baseline that was not designed using a Blockchain. To the best of our knowledge, GAA- FQ is the first Blockchain-oriented access authorisation scheme with granular access control, supporting flexible data queries, that has been proposed for secure EMR information management.