A novel bioactive nano-composite: synthesis and characterisation with potential use as dental restorative material
It is desirable for a dental restorative material to have bioactive and bonding properties. This study focuses on the synthesis of a covalently-linked polyurethane/nanohydroxyapatite (PU/nHA) composite and evaluates its chemical, physical, thermal and biochemical characteristics. nHA powder was produced from the sol-gel and novel composite material was chemically prepared by utilising solvent polymerisation. The resulting composites were analysed by chemical, thermal, and mechanical characterisations and electrospun to form fibre mats. The composites were hydrolytically degraded in deionised water and phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and were analysed. Bioactive behaviour was determined in modified-simulated body fluid. The bioadhesion with dentine was analysed in distilled water and artificial saliva. Cell growth and proliferation was measured and number of adhering bacteria was determined and serial dilution followed by plating for colony forming units per disc. Spectral analyses showed the grafted isocyanate and ether peaks on nHA indicating that urethane linkage was established. Covalent-linkage between nHA and PU were found in this novel composite with no silane agent. The physical and thermal properties were enhanced by nHA. These composites had high resistance toward hydrolysis and little degradation was observed. Bioadhesion and bioactivity analysis showed the composite adhered firmly on the tooth surface (dentine) and bond strength was similar to existing obturating material. Higher nHA content composite showed a thicker layer of adhesion. Cells were proliferated although at a lower rate of growth compared to PU, whereas, there was reduction in bacteria adhering to the grafted composite compared to PU. With its low bacterial adhesion and biocompatibility it may provide a promising solution to reduce infections. The electrospun nano-fibres were successfully developed and revealed no loose nHA particles. Hence, this novel composite has the potential to be used as a bioactive dental restorative material.
AuthorsKhan, Abdul Samad
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