CAD-based geometry parametrisation for shape optimisation using Non-uniform Rational B-splines
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With the continuous growth in computing power, numerical optimisation is increasingly applied in shape optimisation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Since CFD computations are expensive, gradient-based optimisation is preferable when the number of design variables is large. In particular the recent progress with adjoint solvers is important, as these solvers allow to compute the gradients at constant computational cost regardless of the number of design variables, and as a consequence enable the use of automatically derived and rich design spaces. One of the crucial steps in shape optimisation is the parametrisation of the geometry, which directly determines the design space and thus the nal results. This thesis focuses on CAD-based parametrisations with the CAD model continuously updated in the design loop. An existing approach that automatically derives a parametrisation from the control points of a net of B-Spline patches is extended to include NURBS. Continuity constraints for water-tightness, tangency and curvature across patch interfaces are evaluated numerically and a basis for the resulting design space is computed using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). A CAD-based shape optimisation framework is developed, coupling a flow solver, an adjoint solver, the in-house CAD kernel and a gradient-based optimiser. The flow sensitivities provided by the adjoint solver and the geometric sensitivities computed through automatic differentiation (AD) are assembled and provided to the optimiser. An extension to maintain the design space and hence enables use of a quasi-Newton method such as the BFGS algorithm is also presented and the convergence improvements are demonstrated. The framework is applied to three shape optimisation cases to show its effectiveness. The performance is assessed and analysed. The effect of parameters that can be chosen by the user are analysed over a range of cases and best practice choices are identifi ed.
- Theses