Resource Allocation in Energy Cooperation Enabled 5G Cellular Networks
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In fifth generation (5G) networks, more base stations (BSs) and antennas have been deployed to meet the high data rate and spectrum efficiency requirements. Heterogeneous and ultra dense networks not only pose substantial challenges to the resource allocation design, but also lead to unprecedented surge in energy consumption. Supplying BSs with renewable energy by utilising energy harvesting technology has became a favourable solution for cellular network operators to reduce the grid energy consumption. However, the harvested renewable energy is fluctuating in both time and space domains. The available energy for a particular BS at a particular time might be insufficient to meet the traffic demand which will lead to renewable energy waste or increased outage probability. To solve this problem, the concept of energy cooperation was introduced by Sennur Ulukus in 2012 as a means for transferring and sharing energy between the transmitter and the receiver. Nevertheless, resource allocation in energy cooperation enabled cellular networks is not fully investigated. This thesis investigates resource allocation schemes and resource allocation optimisation in energy cooperation enabled cellular networks that employed advanced 5G techniques, aiming at maximising the energy efficiency of the cellular network while ensuring the network performance. First, a power control algorithm is proposed for energy cooperation enabled millimetre wave (mmWave) HetNets. The aim is to maximise the time average network data rate while keeping the network stable such that the network backlog is bounded and the required battery capacity is finite. Simulation results show that the proposed power control scheme can reduce the required battery capacity and improve the network throughput. Second, resource allocation in energy cooperation enabled heterogeneous networks (Het- Nets) is investigated. User association and power control schemes are proposed to maximise the energy efficiency of the whole network respectively. The simulation results reveal that the implementation of energy cooperation in HetNets can improve the energy efficiency and the improvement is apparent when the energy transfer efficiency is high. Following on that, a novel resource allocation for energy cooperation enabled nonorthogonal multiple access (NOMA) HetNets is presented. Two user association schemes which have different complexities and performances are proposed and compared. Following on that, a joint user association and power control algorithm is proposed to maximise the energy efficiency of the network. It is confirmed from the simulation results that the proposed resource allocation schemes efficiently coordinate the intra-cell and inter-cell interference in NOMA HetNets with energy cooperation while exploiting the multiuser diversity and BS densification. Last but not least, a joint user association and power control scheme that considers the different content requirements of users is proposed for energy cooperation enabled caching HetNets. It shows that the proposed scheme significantly enhances the energy efficiency performance of caching HetNets.
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