Subspace discovery for video anomaly detection
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In automated video surveillance anomaly detection is a challenging task. We address this task as a novelty detection problem where pattern description is limited and labelling information is available only for a small sample of normal instances. Classification under these conditions is prone to over-fitting. The contribution of this work is to propose a novel video abnormality detection method that does not need object detection and tracking. The method is based on subspace learning to discover a subspace where abnormality detection is easier to perform, without the need of detailed annotation and description of these patterns. The problem is formulated as one-class classification utilising a low dimensional subspace, where a novelty classifier is used to learn normal actions automatically and then to detect abnormal actions from low-level features extracted from a region of interest. The subspace is discovered (using both labelled and unlabelled data) by a locality preserving graph-based algorithm that utilises the Graph Laplacian of a specially designed parameter-less nearest neighbour graph. The methodology compares favourably with alternative subspace learning algorithms (both linear and non-linear) and direct one-class classification schemes commonly used for off-line abnormality detection in synthetic and real data. Based on these findings, the framework is extended to on-line abnormality detection in video sequences, utilising multiple independent detectors deployed over the image frame to learn the local normal patterns and infer abnormality for the complete scene. The method is compared with an alternative linear method to establish advantages and limitations in on-line abnormality detection scenarios. Analysis shows that the alternative approach is better suited for cases where the subspace learning is restricted on the labelled samples, while in the presence of additional unlabelled data the proposed approach using graph-based subspace learning is more appropriate.
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