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dc.contributor.authorOpstelten, JLen_US
dc.contributor.authorBeelen, RMJen_US
dc.contributor.authorLeenders, Men_US
dc.contributor.authorHoek, Gen_US
dc.contributor.authorBrunekreef, Ben_US
dc.contributor.authorvan Schaik, FDMen_US
dc.contributor.authorSiersema, PDen_US
dc.contributor.authorEriksen, KTen_US
dc.contributor.authorRaaschou-Nielsen, Oen_US
dc.contributor.authorTjønneland, Aen_US
dc.contributor.authorOvervad, Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorBoutron-Ruault, M-Cen_US
dc.contributor.authorCarbonnel, Fen_US
dc.contributor.authorde Hoogh, Ken_US
dc.contributor.authorKey, TJen_US
dc.contributor.authorLuben, Ren_US
dc.contributor.authorChan, SSMen_US
dc.contributor.authorHart, ARen_US
dc.contributor.authorBueno-de-Mesquita, HBen_US
dc.contributor.authorOldenburg, Ben_US
dc.description.abstractBACKGROUND: Industrialization has been linked to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). AIM: We investigated the association between air pollution exposure and IBD. METHODS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort was used to identify cases with Crohn's disease (CD) (n = 38) and ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 104) and controls (n = 568) from Denmark, France, the Netherlands, and the UK, matched for center, gender, age, and date of recruitment. Air pollution data were obtained from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects. Residential exposure was assessed with land-use regression models for particulate matter with diameters of <10 μm (PM10), <2.5 μm (PM2.5), and between 2.5 and 10 μm (PMcoarse), soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and two traffic indicators. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Although air pollution was not significantly associated with CD or UC separately, the associations were mostly similar. Individuals with IBD were less likely to have higher exposure levels of PM2.5 and PM10, with ORs of 0.24 (95 % CI 0.07-0.81) per 5 μg/m(3) and 0.25 (95 % CI 0.08-0.78) per 10 μg/m(3), respectively. There was an inverse but nonsignificant association for PMcoarse. A higher nearby traffic load was positively associated with IBD [OR 1.60 (95 % CI 1.04-2.46) per 4,000,000 motor vehicles × m per day]. Other air pollutants were positively but not significantly associated with IBD. CONCLUSION: Exposure to air pollution was not found to be consistently associated with IBD.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipJ.L.O. was supported by an unrestricted research grant from Dr. Falk Pharma. The coordination of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study was financially supported by the European Commission (DG-SANCO) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The national cohorts were supported by the Danish Cancer Society (Denmark); Ligue contre le Cancer, Institut Gustave Roussy, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, French Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM) (France); Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports, Dutch Prevention Funds, LK Research Funds, Dutch ZON (Zorg Onderzoek Nederland), World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF), Statistics Netherlands (the Netherlands); Cancer Research UK C8221/A19170, Medical Research Council MR/M012190/1 (UK). The European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) study has received funding from the European Community’s Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2011) under Grant Agreement No. 211250.en_US
dc.format.extent2963 - 2971en_US
dc.relation.ispartofDig Dis Scien_US
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution License
dc.subjectAir pollutionen_US
dc.subjectCrohn’s diseaseen_US
dc.subjectInflammatory bowel diseaseen_US
dc.subjectParticulate matteren_US
dc.subjectUlcerative colitisen_US
dc.subjectAir Pollutionen_US
dc.subjectCase-Control Studiesen_US
dc.subjectColitis, Ulcerativeen_US
dc.subjectCrohn Diseaseen_US
dc.subjectEnvironmental Exposureen_US
dc.subjectInflammatory Bowel Diseasesen_US
dc.subjectLogistic Modelsen_US
dc.subjectMiddle Ageden_US
dc.subjectOdds Ratioen_US
dc.subjectParticulate Matteren_US
dc.subjectUnited Kingdomen_US
dc.subjectVehicle Emissionsen_US
dc.titleExposure to Ambient Air Pollution and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A European Nested Case-Control Study.en_US
dc.rights.holderThe Author(s) 2016.
pubs.notesNot knownen_US

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