Characterizing Torsional Properties of Microwires Using an Automated Torsion Balance
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In order to characterize the torsional behavior of microwires, an automated torsion tester is established based on the principle of torsion balance. The main challenges in developing a torsion tester at small scales are addressed. An in-situ torsional vibration method for precisely calibrating the torque meter is developed. The torsion tester permits the measurement of torque to nN m, as a function of surface shear strain to a sensitivity of sub-microstrain. Using this technique, we performed (monotonic and/or cyclic) torsion tests on polycrystalline copper and gold wires. It is found that (i) a size effect appears in both the initial yielding and the plastic flow of torsional response; (ii) a reverse plasticity occurs upon unloading in cyclic torsion response; and (iii) the Hall-Petch effect and the strain gradient effect are synergistic. We also performed cyclic torsion tests on human hairs and spider silk which are natural protein fibers with a different morphological structure to metallic wires. It is shown that the single hair exhibits torsional recovery, and that the spider silk displays torsionally superelastic behavior whereby it is able to withstand great shear strain.
AuthorsLiu, D; He, Y; Hu, P; Ding, H
- College Publications