ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF PLANAR ACTIVE AND PASSIVE QUASI-OPTICAL COMPONENTS USING NEW FDTD TECHNIQUES
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New Quasi-optical sensor technology, based on the millimetre and submillimetre band of the electromagnetic spectrum, is actually being implemented for many commercial and scientific applications such as remote sensing, astronomy, collision avoidance radar, etc. These novel devices make use of integrated active and passive structures usually as planar arrays. The electromagnetic design and computer simulation of these new structures requires novel numerical techniques. The Finite Difference Time Domain method (FDTD) is well suited for the electromagnetic analysis of integrated devices using active non-linear elements, but is difficult to use for large and/or periodic structures. A rigorous revision of this popular numerical technique is performed in order to permit FDTD to model practical quasi-optical devices. The system impulse response or discrete Green's function (DGF) for FDTD is determined as a polynomial then the FDTD technique is reformulated as a convolution sum. This new alternative algorithm avoids Absorbing Boundary Conditions (ABC's) and can save large amounts of memory to model wire or slot structures. Many applications for the DGF can be foreseen, going beyond quasi-optical components. As an example, the exact ABC based on the DGF for FDTD is implemented for a single grid wall is presented. The problem of time domain analysis of planar periodic structures modelling only one periodic cell is also investigated. Simple Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC) can be implemented for FDTD, but they can not handle periodic devices (such as phased shift arrays or dichroic screens) which produce fields periodic in a 4D basis (three spatial dimensions plus time). An extended FDTD scheme is presented which uses Lorentz type coordinate transformations to reduce the problem to 3D. The analysis of non-linear devices using FDTD is also considered in the thesis. In this case, the non linear devices are always model using an equivalent lumped element circuit. These circuits are introduced into the FDTD grid by means of the current density following an iterative implicit algorithm. As a demonstration of the technique a quasi-optically feed slot ring mixer with integral lens is designed for operation at 650 GHz.
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