Empirical Essays on Youths’ Labour Markets and Education
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The first chapter assesses the impact of the cohort size on labour market outcomes. Using exogenous variation and micro-level data for France, the UK and the US, we study the effect of supply shocks measured at different ages on unemployment rates and wages during a cohort’s life cycle. The results from an IV estimation show that the largest magnitude of the effects is found when the cohort size is measured at age 25. The impact of both wages and unemployment rates are temporary, however, both decreasing with time. The second chapter analyses the effects of large inflows of foreign students on English undergraduates. Our results confirm previous findings that there is no overall effect, but we identify changes in the distribution of natives. We find that top performing English students are crowded in by foreign students. It is also mainly English-born males, natives who do not have English as their mother tongue and those of Asian ethnic origins that are crowded in by foreign students. In chapter three, we aim to understand the short-term effects of changes in the level of the tuition fees charged by English universities on students’ geographic mobility. Our results suggest that the increase in tuition fees in 2006/07 charged by English universities led students to enrol into universities that are closer to home, with a larger effect experienced by men and White students. Moreover, we find that students are less likely to move to universities located in rich areas.
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